1. Which of the following best explains the importance prior knowledge brings to the act of reading?
a. Prior knowledge is information the student gets through researching a topic prior to reading the text. A student who is well-prepared through such research is better able to decode a text and retain its meaning.
b. Prior knowledge is knowledge the student brings from previous life or learning experiences to the act of reading. It is not possible for a student to fully comprehend new knowledge without first integrating it with prior knowledge.
c. Prior knowledge is predictive. It motivates the student to look for contextual clues in the reading and predict what is likely to happen next.
d. Prior knowledge is not important to any degree to the act of reading, because every text is self-contained and therefore seamless. Prior knowledge is irrelevant in this application.
2. A cloze test evaluates a student’s:
a. Reading fluency
b. Understanding of context and vocabulary
c. Phonemic skills
d. Ability to apply the alphabetic principle to previously unknown material
3. Sight words are:
a. Common words with irregular spelling
b. Words that can easily be found on educational websites
c. Any word that can be seen, including text words, words on signs, brochures, banners, and so forth
d. There is no such thing; because oral language is learned before written language, all words are ultimately based on sound. The correct term is sound words and includes all words necessary to decode a particular text
4. Phone, they, church. The underlined letters in these words are examples of:
a. Consonant blend
b. Consonant shift
c. Continental shift
d. Consonant digraph
5. Phonemic awareness is a type of:
a. Phonological awareness. Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize sounds within words
b. Phonics. It is a teaching technique whereby readers learn the relationship between letters and sounds
c. Alphabetization. Unless a reader knows the alphabet, phonemic awareness is useless
d. Syntactical awareness. Understanding the underlying structure of a sentence is key to understanding meaning
6. All members of a group of kindergarten students early in the year are able to chant the alphabet. The teacher is now teaching the students what the alphabet looks like in written form. The teacher points to a letter and the students vocalize the correspondent sound. Alternatively, the teacher vocalizes a phoneme and a student points to it on the alphabet chart. The teacher is using ________________ in her instruction.
a. Letter–sound correspondence
b. Rote memorization
c. Predictive analysis
7. A fourth-grade teacher is preparing her students for a reading test in which a number of words have been replaced with blanks. The test will be multiple-choice; there are three possible answers given for each blank. The teacher instructs the children to read all the possible answers and cross out any answer that obviously doesn’t fit. Next, the students should “plug in” the remaining choices and eliminate any that are grammatically incorrect or illogical. Finally, the student should consider contextual clues in order to select the best answer. This in an example of:
a. Strategy instruction
b. Diagnostic instruction
c. Skills instruction
d. Multiple-choice instruction
8. The term “common words” means:
a. One-syllable words with fewer than three letters. Some examples are it, an, a, I, go, to, and in. They are the first words an emergent writer learns
b. One-syllable words with fewer than five letters. Some examples include sing, goes, sit, rock, walk, and took
c. Words that are ordinary or unexceptional; because they tend to flatten a piece of writing, they should be avoided
d. Familiar, frequently used words that do not need to be taught beyond primary grades
9. Which is greater, the number of English phonemes or the number of letters in the alphabet?
a. The number of letters in the alphabet, because they can be combined to create phonemes
b. The number of phonemes. A phoneme is the smallest measure of language sound
c. They are identical; each letter “owns” a correspondent sound
d. Neither. Phonemes and alphabet letters are completely unrelated
10. Train, brain, spring. The underlined letters are examples of:
a. Consonant digraph
b. Consonant blend
c. Consonant shift
d. Continental shift