Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 7-12 Test Questions

1. What should a teacher define before creating a lesson plan?

A. the existing knowledge of the students
B. the goals of the lesson
C. behavioral boundaries
D. the limitations of the school technology

2. What kind of sequencing features a transition from complex theory to specific detail?

A. whole-to-part sequencing
B. external constraint
C. chronological sequencing
D. thematic topic sequencing

3. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of Marzano’s cognitive taxonomy?

A. retrieval
B. analysis
C. comprehension
D. metacognition

4. The part of a needs analysis that defines the difference between ideal and current conditions is known as the _______.

A. equivocation analysis
B. differential summary
C. discrepancy analysis
D. stress test

5. What is the main criticism of true-false tests?

A. They are too easy to produce.
B. They can be completed too quickly.
C. They prevent the teacher from addressing complex or ambiguous subjects.
D. They allow too much extraneous information.

6. What is the primary factor that a teacher should consider before issuing a homework assignment?

A. The difficulty of the subject
B. The assignment’s effect on learning
C. The length of the school day
D. The age of the student

7. According to which theory of education is it necessary for a student to grasp the entirety of a concept?

A. Gestalt theory
B. Social learning theory
C. Structural learning theory
D. Constructivism

8. Which of the following is NOT an example of informal assessment?

A. An observation checklist
B. A chapter test
C. Anecdotal observations
D. A teacher/student conference

9. Who promoted the idea that behavior is based on rewards and reinforcement?

A. Freud
B. Erikson
C. Darwin
D. Skinner

10. Which of the following best describes standardized testing?

A. Subject-referenced
B. Criterion-referenced
C. Norm-referenced
D. Data-referenced

11. Which of the following is not one of Erick Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development?

A. Infancy
B. Adolescence
C. Middle Adulthood
D. Senior Adulthood

12. Elements of Erickson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development, Adolescence, include:

A. Initiative vs. Guilt
B. Obsess over peer approval
C. Receiving care from maternal caregiver
D. All of the above

13. Cultural influences impact students’ ability and readiness to learn by:

A. Recognizing different standards
B. Emphasizing different choices
C. Rewarding different behavior
D. All of the above

14. The cognitive changes of adolescence include:

A. Slower cognitive processing
B. Applying experience to new situations
C. Improved ability to communicate
D. All of the above

15. List ways to address adolescent behavior issues.

A. Explain consequences
B. Refuse to listen
C. Take arbitrary actions
D. All of the above

16. Effective ways to manage behavior include:

A. Asserting authority and power
B. Explaining the rules
C. Withdrawing approval
D. All of the above

17. A discipline plan provides a framework in which to:

A. Assess situations
B. Address issues
C. Make changes
D. All of the above

18. To encourage class participation, it is important to:

A. Place rules visibly
B. Provide feedback and ask for input
C. Refuse to explain guidelines
D. All of the above

19. Ways of teaching students how to approach an assignment might include:

A. Set firm deadlines
B. Requiring memorization of facts
C. Giving detailed instructions
D. All of the above

20. Influences that affect communication with parents include:

A. Age of students
B. Educational level of the parents
C. Administration support
D. All of the above

21. The primary learning tasks of adolescents are:

A. Understanding abstract concepts
B. Acquiring problem-solving skills
C. Developing critical thought processes
D. All of the above

22. Common characteristics of successful teachers include:

A. Strict disciplinarians
B. Long teaching careers
C. Consistency
D. All of the above

23. Creating an environment that motivates students includes:

A. Present challenging lessons and activities
B. Promise rewards
C. Threaten consequences
D. All of the above

24. Making connections to other parts of the students’ lives is important because connected data:

A. Helps understanding
B. Increases ability to integrate new information
C. Encourages application of lessons learned
D. All of the above

25. Cognitive collaboration can be used to:

A. Get better grades
B. Function individually
C. Create a new way of thinking
D. All of the above

26. Strategies that help students who have difficulty understanding new concepts include:

A. Field trips
B. Repeat lessons, if necessary
C. Require memorization
D. All of the above

27. Strategies that help students who have difficulty retaining and retrieving data include:

A. Divide instructions into short sections
B. Rephrase key concepts
C. Use mnemonics
D. All of the above

28. Strategies that help students who have difficulties following classroom protocol include:

A. Derogatory remarks about a student’s behavior
B. Consistent enforcement of the rules
C. Ignoring the behavior
D. All of the above

29. Teachers can create a harmonious classroom by:

A. Admitting mistakes
B. Being judgmental
C. Delay addressing the problem
D. All of the above

30. A written discipline plan:

A. Will Prevent unacceptable behavior
B. Is fair and clearly defined
C. Can only be imposed by the teacher
D. All of the above

Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 7-12 Test Answer Key