Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood (0621 and 5621) Test Questions

1. Mainstream media and advanced technologies have led to a shift in the nature of children’s’ recreational activities — instead of playing outside, children are more frequently engaging in indoor activities, such as playing computer or video games and watching television. What is one thing parents can do during the early developmental stages of a child’s life to ensure proper social development?

a. Make sure television shows and computer or video games are age appropriate.
b. Make sure television shows and computer or video games are educational.
c. Decrease the amount of time a child spends watching television and playing computer or video games, and encourage social interaction.
d. Increase the frequency with which friends visit each week.

2. In response to bad behavior, a young child is scolded and threatened with punishment; however, these methods have resulted in decreased academic performance and worsening behavior. What can a parent or educator do to increase self-esteem and positive behavior in this situation?

a. Focus on the child’s positive behaviors.
b. Seek behavior management counseling.
c. Assign a tutor to the child.
d. Continue with the current techniques, as this may be a childhood stage

Questions 3 to 6 pertain to the following scenario:
A second-grade student is having difficulty in school, specifically with the subjects of mathematics and science, as well as various aspects of social development. The student does not understand math concepts used for checking addition with subtraction (e.g., 5 + 3 = 8 and 8 – 3 = 5). Additionally, the student has difficulty with simple sorting tasks, such as sorting items by their color and shape. On the playground, the student is often left out of games because he does not follow rules and the other children become frustrated with him.

3. According to the theory of cognitive development, what stage should a child be in by the second grade?

a. Sensorimotor stage.
b. Preoperational stage.
c. Concrete operational stage.
d. Formal operational stage.

4. A deficiency in which of the following functions of the cognitive developmental stages is leading to this student’s problems in math?

a. Elimination of egocentrism.
b. Reversibility.
c. Conservation.
d. Decentering.

5. As an educator, how would you best address this situation?

a. Suggest an assessment be conducted to determine if a cognitive delay exists.
b. Encourage the other students to play with him.
c. Initiate a parent-teacher conference to find out if there are problems at home.
d. Do nothing, as this is typically a developmental stage he will grow out of.

6. According to the description of the student’s experience on the playground, what would the Social-Emotional theory suggest is occurring?

a. Development of trust rather than mistrust.
b. Development of autonomy rather than shame.
c. Development of guilt rather than initiative.
d. Development of inferiority rather than industry.

7. It is snack time in your kindergarten class, and you pour two children equal amounts of water; however, one child’s cup is bigger. The child with the bigger cup complains that he has less water. In terms of cognitive development, what can you determine by this complaint?

a. The child has a developmental delay because he does not understand conservation.
b. The child has not reached the concrete operational stage and does not understand conservation; this is normal for a child of this age.
c. The child is displaying a delay in intuitive processes commonly acquired during the pre-operational stage of cognitive development.
d. The child is displaying a preconceptual process that is common among this age group.

8. You would like to encourage your fourth-grade class to be more organized. Which of the following would best accomplish this task?

a. Asking students to write essays describing how they prepared for their weekly spelling test.
b. Asking students to use planners to keep track of their homework assignments and test dates.
c. Writing a note to the students’ parents describing your educational plan.
d. Encouraging students to keep a daily calendar at home.

9. A teacher organizes a class project in which students are placed in groups to complete a task. Upon completing the task, students are instructed to grade themselves in terms of their own participation in the project. What skill does this assignment attempt to develop?

a. Critical thinking skills.
b. Ability to work with others.
c. Ability to follow directions.
d. Trustworthiness.

Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood (0621 and 5621) Test Answer Key