This exam is designed for individuals, who would like to teach science at the middle school level. You will be given two and a half hours to complete 125 multiple-choice questions. The test can be broken down into seven sections:
Scientific Inquiry, Methodology, Techniques, and History – 15 questions
Basic Principles of Matter and Energy – 15 questions
Physical Sciences – 28 questions
Life Sciences – 30 questions
Earth and Space Sciences – 22 questions
Science, Technology, and Society – 15 questions
Science, Technology, and Society
In this section of the exam your knowledge of the economic, social, political, and ethical issues of human technologies such as prenatal testing, prolonging life, cloning and their impact on human affairs will be assessed. Questions regarding the application of science and technology to daily life regarding energy production and storage, consumer products, natural resources, nutrition, and public health issues will be included in this section of the exam.
Basic Principles of Matter and Energy
This section of exam will assess your knowledge of the structure and properties of matter, the basic relationships between energy and matter, and the basic structure of the atom.
Earth and Space Sciences
This section of exam will assess your knowledge of astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, historical geology and physical geology. Questions in the astronomy section will cover asteroids, comets, the solar system, the sun, the lifecycle of stars, units of distance, and theories regarding the origin and structure of the universe. Questions in the meteorology section, will cover how humans are affected by climates, local and regional factors that affect climate, weather forecasting, air circulation, frontal systems, high and low-pressure systems, air masses, temperature, cloud formation, precipitation, humidity, frost, atmospheric conditions, global wind belts, seasonal and latitudinal variations of solar radiation, the chemical composition of the atmosphere and atmospheric layers. The oceanography questions will cover the influences on chemical and physical properties of seawater, topography, land forms of the ocean floor, shore lines, surface and deep water currents of the oceans, factors that influence tides, and the geographic locations of oceans and seas.
Questions under historical geology will cover the sequence of events in the earth’s history, the geological time scale, the formation of fossils, relative and absolute time, stratigraphy, and the principle of uniformitarianism. Questions under physical geology will cover the process of weathering erosion, deposition, the Hydra logical cycle, plate tectonic theory, earthquakes, volcanoes, and folding and defaulting of the earth, the physical characteristics of layers of the earth, classification of different types of minerals, soils, and rocks and the process of mineral and rock formation.
This section of the exam will assess your knowledge of ecology, plants, animals, diversity of life, evolution, genetics, and the cell. Questions in the ecology section, will assess your knowledge of types and characteristics of biomes, bio geo-chemical cycles, energy flow, stability and instability of the ecosystem, succession, intraspecific relationships and interspecific relationships such as mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism and; social behaviors such as altruism, dominance, territoriality and population dynamics. Question regarding animals will cover homeostasis, animal responses to stimuli, the anatomy and physiology of organisms in the animal kingdom along with reproduction and development, the endocrine system, immunity, the nervous and musculoskeletal systems, respiration, excretion, digestion, and circulation of organisms in the animal kingdom. Questions regarding plants will cover asexual and sexual reproduction, water and nutrient transport systems, hormones, tropisms, photoperiods, the structure and function of leaves, stems, and the components of vascular and nonvascular plants. Questions regarding diversity of life will cover the viruses, animals, plants, bacteria, fungi, protists, the classification system of phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Questions regarding evolution will cover the scientific hypotheses for the origin of life, and evidence that supports the theory of evolution. The genetics questions will cover protein synthesis, genetic mutations, DNA replication and, the construction and usage of recombinant DNA,
Your knowledge of the interaction between the environment and heredity, genetic and chromosomal aberrations that result in human genetic disorders, the Mendelian inheritance model, and aspects of non-Mendelian inheritance will be assessed in this section of the exam. Questions regarding this cell will cover mitosis and meiosis, photosynthesis and the chemical reactions of respiration, cytokinesis and a cell cycle, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and the function of organelles.
This section of the exam will cover physics and chemistry. The chemistry questions will cover solutions and solubility, chemical reactions, states of matter and the kinetic theory, chemical bonding, the mole, and periodicity. Your knowledge of pH and buffers, physical and chemical properties of salts, bases, and acids, the effect of pressure and temperature on solubility of a solute, solvents and the dissolving process will be assessed. In the chemical reactions section your knowledge of electrochemistry; the effect of concentration, pressure, temperature and catalysts on chemical reactions; exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions, and balancing chemical equations will be assessed. In the state of matter and kinetic theory section, questions concerning formation of crystals, phase changes, kinetic molecular theory; and the relationship between volume, pressure, temperature and the number of molecules of a gas will be included. Questions regarding chemical bonding and the mole will assess your knowledge of bonds, structural formulas, electron dots, the nomenclature of organic and inorganic compounds, chemical formulas, chemical composition and the mole concept. Questions regarding periodicity will assess your knowledge of periodic trends of chemical and physical properties, and the definition of chemical periodicity.
Scientific Methodologies, Techniques, and History
This section of the exam will cover topics like methods of scientific inquiry and how they are used in basic problem solving, the processes involved in scientific data collection and manipulation, how to interpret and draw conclusions from data presented in tables and graphs, safety and emergency procedures in the laboratory, and how to use standard equipment in the laboratory.
Praxis II Middle School Science Practice Questions