1. B. Magazine articles tend to be overly specific and less academic in content.
2. D. Many students will still prefer to read a book in its traditional format rather than in a magazine or through electronic media.
3. B. Elementary school libraries thrive when borrowing periods are long and parents are kept apprised of the books their children have checked out.
4. A. Buying books from a bookstore is generally more expensive, but is the preferred way to quickly acquire individual titles.
5. D. Racist literature is a controversial topic in library science; most authorities agree that it is useful for students to have access to examples of racist doctrine so that they can study its inequalities and irrationalities.
6. D. Peer-to-peer coaching allows professionals to form friendships that may be extremely helpful when problems arise.
7. B. The best way to learn most computer programs is through direct experience with supervision.
8. A. Nature is a research journal and is much too sophisticated for young children.
9. C. Mission statements are an opportunity for specialists to make their educational philosophy.
10. A. With young students, it is not advisable to approach a new unit from an overly intellectual angle.
11. D. Librarians use these trade journals to find out about new books and instructional methods.
12. C. Libraries typically give the absorbed periodical the title and numbering of the absorbing periodical.
13. D. School libraries are advised to carry very few mass-market paperbacks.
14. B. The SAA was founded in 1934.
15. B. Compendia are good sources for students who do not have time to read entire original books.
16. Answer: D. In the twenty-first century, librarians are media specialists whose responsibility is to help students learn to read and appreciate the variety and volume of information available in all types of resource material. When students hone their reading and comprehension skills, they grow into critical thinkers and creative problem-solvers. Enhancing their background knowledge means they are better informed about their community and the world beyond their own backyard. They learn to understand diversity and how to function in an environment that demands acceptance of different ethnic, cultural, economic and gender groups. There are many ways librarians help students accomplish these important goals:
Provide access to material in many formats: Fiction, non-fiction and reference books, CDs, videos, newspapers, Internet access, etc.
Stimulate interest in reading, watching, listening and integrating new information and ideas.
Work with teachers to plan, teach and evaluate various resources.
17. Answer: B. According to the Texas State Library and Archive Commission, core values librarians should strive to impart are:
Academic Achievement: Provide a quality program
Access For All: Equitable and universal access by everyone
Reading: Encourage students to read, watch and listen for understanding and pleasure; create an environment that supports a passion for learning
Lifelong Learning: Teach students how to learn; provide skills to become confident, independent, contributing members of society
Technology: Teach students how to use technology; explain benefits and risks; make sure they understand how to evaluate data found on the World Wide Web
Information Literacy: Teach students how to access data efficiently and effectively; help them learn to separate fact from fiction and utilize information appropriately
Innovation: Investigate, initiate and implement positive ideas that help prepare students for life after their formal education is complete
Intellectual Freedom: Promote, develop and facilitate age-appropriate access to a wide variety of knowledge, opinions and intellectual activities
18. Answer: B. The American Library Association defines intellectual freedom as “the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored. Intellectual freedom encompasses the freedom to hold, receive and disseminate ideas.” If one of the main responsibilities of education is to teach students to be critical thinkers and creative problem-solvers, they must be exposed to a variety of thoughts, opinions and interpretations. If they are not allowed to explore all sides of an issue, they will be at an enormous disadvantage and their conclusions will be based on incomplete and/or biased information. America is defined by its acceptance of intellectual freedom. There is no restriction on having and expressing thoughts and ideas. Supreme Court Justice Abe Fortas said, “It can hardly be argued that either students or teachers shed their constitutional rights of free speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.”
19. Answer: B. Censors try to use the power of the state to restrict what other people can watch (films, television, theater), read (books, magazines), listen to (music) and look at (paintings, sculptures). They believe they know what is offensive and objectionable and feel a moral obligation to protect others. Censors do not believe John Q. Public is capable of making up his own mind about what is inappropriate, dangerous or unsuitable. Censorship in any form is a direct assault on intellectual freedom because intellectual freedom is “the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction.” The First Amendment protects that right even if someone disagrees with and opposes the ideas expressed. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas summed it up this way, “Restriction of free thought and free speech is the most dangerous of all subversions. It is the one un-American act that could most easily defeat us.”
20. Answer: B. The American Library Association “affirms that all libraries are forums for information and ideas,” and believes they should embrace these basic policies:
Resources should be interesting, informative and enlightening. Material should not be excluded because of the “origin, background or views” of those who wrote it or collaborated in its creation.
Material should be provided that represents all points of view. Resources should not be removed or avoided because of “partisan or doctrinal disapproval.”
Challenge censorship in all its forms.
Cooperate with any entity that works to prevent the obstruction of “free expression and free access to ideas.”
Do not deny access to the library’s resources because of “origin, age, background or views.”
If space is available for the public’s use, it should be open to all on an “equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use.”
21. Answer: A. The librarian should be a leader in developing the objectives of the library’s mission and defining the strategies to achieve its goals. Sound, sensible policies and practices should be written, explained and implemented, so all members of the academic community benefit. The librarian is responsible for hiring and training staff and ensuring they have the proper credentials. The librarian should recruit volunteers and community partners and encourage participation in library activities. It is vital the librarian secure funding that allows building a sound program that offers an eclectic choice of resources and services. One of the goals should be to provide the resources the academic community needs to be fully engaged with the technological advances available in today’s world. The best- stocked and well-run library won’t fulfill its mission if nobody knows about its wonderful resources. The librarian must promote the program by sharing and explaining what services and resources are available and encouraging their use.
22. Answer: C. A school does not exist in a vacuum. It is a vital part of the community in which it operates and is subject to the same social and economic influences as its neighbors. Schools are not isolated islands of learning; they are an integral part of the community. As such, they can have a critical role in shaping the attitudes of its neighbors and be a force in creating a positive atmosphere for everyone. Studies have shown and anecdotal evidence proves that when a school is successful in communicating its goals and is seen actively addressing its problems, there is greater support from business and community leaders and parents are more involved. But the most important result of good community relations is a better education for all students and more opportunities for them to succeed in the real world.
23. Answer: B. It is imperative educators develop programs and curricula that emphasize all children are capable of learning and meeting high academic standards. It is the responsibility of educators to provide the tools and environment for students to achieve. Anything less is unacceptable. When students are taught with a curriculum that embraces diversity, it enables them to function more effectively in a complex, multicultural society. Students need to understand the historical experiences of every cultural group in their society in order to appreciate how past actions affect present circumstances. An empowering educational culture that embraces multicultural diversity integrates information about the impact of all cultures and enhances students’ ability to understand, appreciate and get along with different racial, ethnic and gender groups. Mary Stone Hanley believes, “Multicultural education is about social change through education.”
24. Answer: D. Technology is a powerful tool for expanding instructional approaches and enriching the learning experience. It is an integral part of today’s world and schools have a duty to instruct students in the use of technology and explain the benefits and risks as well. The key to successfully integrating technology in the educational environment is creating a realistic plan based on existing learning and teaching styles and the expectations of the users. Librarians should be involved in developing the plan, so issues are addressed before purchases are made. It is important that teachers and students are trained in its use and encouraged to adapt the technology to their unique teaching and learning styles. It is critical that on-site assistance is readily available. If operational issues can’t be addressed quickly, teachers and students will stop using the technology and return to familiar methods.